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IDIN GHADIR: BUKIN CIKAN ADDINI

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Gabatarwa

Ka’idar da fahimtar juna a tsakanin ’ya’yan kowace al’umma da suke da bambance bambancen al’adu da fahimtar addini mabambanta tana hukunta samar da yanayin bijirar da ra’ayoyi da fahimtar dukkan bangarorin dake sabani da juna don kowa ya fahimce su. Nigeriya babbar kasa ce dake kunshe da al’ummu masu fahimtar rayuwa da addini dabam daban. Musulmi, kamar abokan zamansu Kiristoci, suna da bambanci mazahabobi da kungiyoyi a Nigeriya kamar yadda lamarin yake a galibin kasa sashen dake da musulmi da adadi mai yawa. Daga manyan kungiyoyin musulmi a kasar nan akwai ’yan Shi’a.

 

Za a lura da wani biki dake da tasirin gaske a tsakanin ’yan Shi’a, wanda suke aiwatar da shi a ranar kowane 18 ga watan Zul-Hijja, kuma suna maimaita shi a kowace shekara. Wannan shi ne Idin Ghadir. Wannan shi ne lokacin da Manzon tsira (SAWA) ya nada Aliyu (AS) a matsayin magajinsa. Fahimtar yadda mabiya mazahabar Shi’a suke fahimtar wannan lamari yana da matukar mahimmanci, saboda yana nuna jigon sabani tsakaninsu da sauran musulmi.

 

Takaitaccen Tarihin Ghadir

Ghadir, wani idon ruwa ne, wanda Allah Madaukaki Ya hukunta wanzuwar ambatonsa. Ya kasance a yankin da aka fi sani da Juhufa,’yan milamilai kadan daga arewa da birnin Makka. Wajen na matsayin wata mararraba ce da hanyoyi suka rarrabu zuwa Masar, Madina, Sham da Iraki. A wajen ne Mala'ika Jibrilu (AS) ya sauko wa Manozon Allah (SAWA) da wannan sako na Ghadir.

Ranar da abin ya faru kuwa, ya kasance ranar alhamis, 18 ga watan Zul-Hajji hijirar Manzo na da shekaru goma. A lokacin Ma’aiki (SAWA) ya ja-gorancin mahajjatan da adadinsu bai kasa dubu dari ba, wadanda suka fito daga garuruwan Musulmi dabam daban. A lokacin sun kammala aikin hajji; kuma sun sami halartar mashhadin nan na ruhi, wanda a cikinsa suka raya wasu ayyuka na uban wannan al’umma, wato Annabi Ibrahim (AS); wannan babban mutum da Allah Ya zaba kuma Ya dora a mukamin Imamanci, bayan mukaminsa na Annabci; inda har shi kuma ya yi fatan wannan mukami ya ci gaba a cikin tsatsonsa, ya roki Allah Madaukaki a kan haka, kuma aka amsa masa da kebe wasu daga zuriyarsa da wannan matsayi, kamar yadda ya zo a cikin AlKur’ani mai girma:

 

..Lokacin da Ubangijin Ibrahimu Ya jarabce shi da wasu kalmomi, sai (shi Ibrahim) ya cika su. (Sai Ubangiji) Ya ce masa: ‘lallai ni zan sanya ka Imami a kan mutane’; (sai Ibrahim) ya ce: ‘har ma da zuriyata’; (sai Allah) Ya ce: ‘azzalumai (daga zuriyarka) ba za su sami alkawariNa ba (al-Bakara 2:124).

 

 

Musulmi sun dawo daga wadannan ayyuka na gari da suka ba Annabi Ibrahim daman isar da zababbu daga zuriyarsa matsayin Imamanci, a karkashin ja-gorancin daya daga cikin jikokinsa (Manzo SAWA), sai Allah Madaukaki Ya hukunta isar da sakon Ghadir, a matsayin daya daga cikin ma’anonin cika alkawarin da Allah Ya ga wa Annabi Ibrahim (AS). Allah Ya saukar wa ManzonSa da sakon cewa:

 

Ya kai wannan Manzo, ka isar da abin da aka saukar zuwa gareka daga Ubangijinka, idan ba ka aikata (haka) ba, to ba ka isar da (sauran) sakonSa ba, kuma Allah Zai kare ka daga mutane, lallai Allah ba Ya shiryar da jama'a kafirai.          (al-Ma'ida, 5:57).

 

Nan take, ba tare da wani bata lokaci ba, sai Manzon Allah (SAWA) ya aika da a tsayar da wadanda ke gabansu, sannan bayan ya cim musu, ya sa a jira wadanda ke baya har sai da suka iso. Sai ya yi horo da kiran Sallah, ya ja-goranci mutane Sallar Azahur. Bayan ya kammala sai ya yiwa mutane huduba, wadda yafara da gode wa Allah da yabonSa. Sannan ya yi wasici, ya tunatar, ya fadi abin da Allah Ya so ya fada, sannan ya ce:

 

An kusa a kira ni in amsa, lallai ni abin tambaya ne, ku ma wadanda za a tambaya ne, shin me za ku ce?

 

Sai duk musulmin dake halarce a wajen suka amsa da cewa:

 

 

Mun shaida cewa lallai kai ka isar, kuma ka yi nasiha, Allah Ya saka maka da alheri.

 

Sai ya ce:

 

Ashe ba ku shaida cewa babu abin bauta (na gaskiya) sai Allah ba, kuma ni Muhammadu bawanSa ne kuma ManzonSa, kuma Aljanna gaskiya ce haka wuta gasikya ce ba?

 

Sai suka ce: "Kwarai kuwa mun shaida."

 

Sai ya ce:

 

Ashe ba ku san cewa ni ne mafi cancantar mai jibintar al'amurran Muminai fiye da su kansu ba?

 

Sai suka ce: "Kwarai kuwa mun shaida ya Manzon Allah."

 

 

Sannan sai ya kama hannun Ali bin Abi Dalib (AS) ya daga sama, har sai da mutane suka ga farin hammatarsu, sannan ya ce:

 

Duk wanda na zama majibincin al'amarinsa, to Ali ma majibincin al'amarinsa; ya Allah Ka jibinci (lamurran) wanda ya mika wilaya gare shi Ka kuma bar wanda ya bar shi; Ka kuma taimaki wanda ya taimake shi Ka tabar da wanda ya watsar da shi.

 

Sannan sai ya ce: “Ya Allah ka yi shaida”.

 

Daga nan sai Abubakar (R.A) da Umar (R.A) suka je wajen Ali (AS) suka yi masa san-barka da cewa:

 

Barkanka! barkanka!! ya dan Abi Dalib, daga yau ka zama majibincin al'amarin kowane mumini da mumina.

 

Manzon Allah (SAWA) yana kamala wannan aiki da Allah Ya hore shi a gaban shaidun masu yawa, sai Mala'ika Jibrilu (AS) ya sauko da fadar Allah Madaukaki:

 

A yau Na cika muku addiniku, kuma Na cika ni'imaTa a kanku, Na kuma yardar muku Musulunci a matsayin addini.          (al-Ma'ida, 5:3).

 

Wannan shi ne jigon dalilin imanin da ’yan Shi’a na gabatar da Aliyu (AS) amatsayin Imami kuma shugaban al’ummar musulmi bayan Manzon Allah (SAWA), kuma yana layin tarin dalilai da suke tabbatar da haka daga ayoyin AlKur’ani da suka sauka a kan Aliyu (AS), irin su ayar Sadaukar da Kai (Bakara: 207), ayar turjiyarsa da tabbatansa a imani (al-Ma’ida: 54), fana’insa a taimakon mabukata (al-Ma’ida: 55-56), yadda Allah Ya kira shi da nafsin Annabi a cikin Ayar Mubahala (Aali Imran: 61) da sauransu na daga ayoyin da wasu malamai suka ce sun kai 300. Kari da maganganun da Manzo (SAWA) ya yi a kansa, wadanda ’yan Shi’a suke fahimtarsu a matsayin wasici da shi, kamar kwatanta shi da Haruna a wajen Musa, da cewa shi ne kofar iliminsa, da cewa shi ba ya rabuwa da gaskiya, da cewa shi yana son Allah kuma Allah Yana sonsa da tarin irin su masu yawa wadanda har Imam al-Nasa’i ya kebe littafi guda a kansu wanda ya kira shi da Khasa’isu Amirul-Mu’uminin Aliyu binAbi Talib.

 

Shi kan shi wannan hadisi na Ghadir, ban da hanyoyin hadisan ‘yan Shi’a suka fitar kuma suka inganta shi, malamai sun kididdige hanyoyinsa ta bangarorin Ahlul-Sunna, sai suka same shi ya fito ta hanyoyin:

 

1-Ahamad bin Hambali: Ya ruwato shi ta hanyoyi 40.

2-Ibin Jarir Dabari: Ya ruwaito shi ta hanyoyi 72.

3-Al-Jazri al-Makari: Ya ruwaiyo shi ta hanyoyi 80.

4-Ibin Ukda: Ya ruwaito shi ta hanyoyi 105.

5-Mas'ud al-Sajastani: Ya ruwaito shi da isnadi 1,300.

6-Shekh Abdullahi ya fada a cikin littafin shi al-Manakib_ cewa:

 

"Wannan hadisi ya wuce haddin tawatiri, domin babu wani labari da aka dauko ta hanyoyi masu yawa irin na shi."

 

Amma adadin wadanda suka kasance tare da Manzon Allah a ranar Ghadir, an yi sabani a kanshi. A wani kauli an ce dubu casa'in, a wani kuma an ce dubu dari da sha hudu ne, a wani an ce dubu dari da ashirin da hudu; wannan shi ne adadin wadanda suka fito tare da Manzon Allah (SAWA). Amma wadanda suka yi aikin haji tare da shi sun fi haka yawa; wato irin wadanda ke zaune a Makka da wadanda suka zo tare da Imam Ali (AS), da wadanda suka zo tare da Abu Musa al-Ash'ari._

 

Duk da haka, ’yan’uwa  musulmin Ahlul-Suuna ba sa ganin fassarar hadisin Ghadir da yadda ’yan Shi’a suke fassara shi, sai dai suna iya fahimtar cewa imanin ‘yan Shi’a na gabatar da Aliyu (AS)  da shugabantar da shi bayan wafatin Annabi (AS) bai samo asali daga rashin dalili ko hasashe ba. Suna da dalilansu masu karfi da suka yarda cewa sun ishe su fuskantar kowane irin neman hujja a kan imaninsu da akidarsu.

 

 

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